On this submit:
- I. Why muscle matters
- II. How muscle impacts your body composition
- III. What is your muscle made up of?
- IV. How muscle tissue gets energy to move
- V. How muscle is gained (and lost) through exercise
- VI. How your muscle uses the food you eat for energy and growth
- VII. Hormones and factors that play a key role in muscle growth
- VIII. Muscle through our lifespan
- IX. Training on a strong foundation and keeping your muscles balanced and strong
I. Why Muscle Issues
How we transfer, feel and look is all immediately associated to wholesome muscle tissue. Your muscle powers each transfer you make, from strolling to speaking to standing upright. Sustaining robust, wholesome and balanced muscle tissue as you undergo time will enhance your high quality of life.
Muscle helps you with each day actions like carrying your groceries, strolling up and down stairs, and choosing up children and pets. It protects your organs, surrounds and stabilizes your joints, and is what provides your physique form, “tightness” and power.
Your muscle tissue is very concentrated with mitochondria, the mobile organelles chargeable for ATP (vitality) manufacturing. Staying energetic and exercising usually helps preserve muscle tissue wholesome by rising mitochondrial density.
Muscle tissue has additionally been recognized as an endocrine organ (1), that means it’s a participant within the chemical messenger system the physique makes use of to ship alerts that regulate our well being. Contracting muscle secretes (produces) peptides and cytokines (chemical messengers) as a part of a hormone signaling community which talk with different organs and assist wholesome immune operate, insulin response and elevated metabolic well being. (2,3,4)
You may enhance the standard of your muscle tissue in so some ways – from stretching and mobility train like yoga, to cardiovascular train (both aerobic and anaerobic), resistance coaching with your personal physique weight towards gravity, and utilizing weights, bands and machines.
Selection and consistency are the secret in terms of utilizing your muscle and retaining it supple and powerful all through your life.
II. How muscle impacts your physique composition
If fats burning is a spotlight for you, constructing muscle is likely one of the best methods to assist that purpose as with every contraction of your muscle, you’ll use extra vitality (and burn extra energy).
I do know it is probably not in your radar to deal with muscle achieve over fats loss as a result of we’ve been so skilled by weight loss plan tradition to consider our “physique fats” as the first needle mover, however I need to reframe that viewpoint, and break down some necessary issues it’s essential to learn about what muscle does, the way it works, and the way necessary it truly is to protect as you undergo your life as a robust, succesful and wholesome lady.
Physique composition is commonly neglected in “weight reduction” centered coaching. 5 kilos of muscle and 5 kilos of fats each weigh 5 kilos, however they take up very totally different quantities of house in our our bodies (see image beneath). Fats is looser and takes up more room per pound than muscle, which is dense and compact.
As you add muscle to your physique, not solely do you change into a extra environment friendly fats burner (as muscle burns extra energy because of the elevated vitality output when a muscle contracts) however you additionally change the form (composition) of your physique – often to an aesthetically tighter, extra “toned” form.
This doesn’t all the time translate to the quantity of “weight” misplaced – in the event you had been to switch a pound of fats in your physique with a pound of muscle, you wouldn’t change your “weight” however the composition and form of your physique would change to look smaller and also you’d be reaping all the advantages of carrying that extra muscle tissue.
Dropping fats with out strengthening and rising muscle could make the physique seem smaller, however looser. Whereas I dislike the time period “skinny-fat” this precisely describes the flabby state of a non-muscular physique.
Individuals who deal with extreme cardio and weight-reduction plan (with none deal with power coaching) can expertise unfavorable outcomes, together with a lowered immune response and an elevated stress response – which contributes to muscle breakdown, and slows fats loss.
When weight reduction is your purpose, contemplate adjusting your body to incorporate “muscle acquisition” as a shared purpose with fats loss.
If including or enhancing the standard of our muscle is already a purpose, we will immediately impression fats loss in related methods as we impression muscle power – with mobility and adaptability work, resistance coaching, cardiovascular coaching, wholesome consuming, common relaxation and good sleep, and mitigating our stress ranges.
III. What’s your muscle made up of?
You’ve gotten over 650 muscle groups in your physique that work collectively that will help you transfer. You’ve bought 3 sorts of muscle, the cardiac muscle that pumps our coronary heart and blood, the easy muscle that controls our organs, and skeletal muscle which contracts to maneuver our bones, and gives stability for stability and posture.
Of the three varieties, solely skeletal muscle is below our voluntary management – luckily the opposite two varieties work with out us having to consider them consciously!
Muscle will get its ‘stretchiness’ from 1000’s of fibers that make it up. Whether or not you might be operating, strolling or speaking, motion occurs when these muscle fibers contract.
There are two important sorts of muscle fiber, gradual twitch and quick twitch.
- Sluggish twitch muscle fibers (additionally referred to as Kind 1) are centered on sustained, smaller motion and posture management. They’re extra immune to fatigue, and are properly suited to assist longer, extra endurance kind actions. They’re cardio in nature (they depend on oxygen). They’ve been proven to hypertrophy (enhance muscle mass) with progressive overload and with cardio train as properly.
- Quick twitch muscle fibers (additionally referred to as Kind 2) are extra centered on greater, extra highly effective motion however for shorter durations, and fatigue extra shortly. Kind 2a makes use of a mixture of cardio and anaerobic metabolism to create vitality, the place kind 2b makes use of anaerobic metabolism (with out oxygen) alone.
It’s possible you’ll be born with extra of 1 than one other fiber kind, making you naturally extra able to excelling in a sure kind of sport. Olympic sprinters as an illustration have been proven to have about 80% fast-twitch fibers, whereas marathon runners have predominantly slow-twitch fibers.
IV. How muscle tissue will get vitality to maneuver
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is the supply of vitality wanted to energy muscle contractions. It’s probably not “saved” in your cells, so when you begin exercising your physique shortly begins making ATP. Your muscle cells have three important methods of creating it, they usually work collectively in phases (5):
- Creatine phosphate (with oxygen): this can be a high-energy compound present in your muscle cells that may be damaged right down to make ATP to produce a working muscle with vitality, however just for about 8-10 seconds.
- Glycogen (with out oxygen): carbohydrates are saved within the muscle tissue within the type of glycogen, which can be utilized to make ATP from its by-product glucose. It will produce vitality to final for about 90 seconds.
- Cardio respiration (with oxygen): inside 2 minutes of train, the physique begins to offer the muscle groups with oxygen and cardio respiration breaks down the glucose for ATP within the mitochondria. The glucose can come from the remaining glucose provide within the muscle cells, glycogen shops within the liver, fats reserves within the muscle tissue, glucose from meals within the intestines, and in instances when no glycogen is accessible, the physique will break down skeletal muscle for protein to transform into glucose. That is probably the most sustainable type of vitality manufacturing, and might provide ATP for so long as the gas provide lasts.
V. How muscle is gained (and misplaced) by way of train
Muscle mass working towards a progressively difficult load results in will increase in muscle mass – a course of known as hypertrophy. Hypertrophy is a thickening of the muscle fibers, creating bigger, stronger muscle groups to tolerate an elevated load.
1. Effort: muscle groups hypertrophy in response to pressure or stress being positioned on them. When the muscle is challenged, both from lifting weights or lifting your personal body weight towards gravity, it’s pressured past its consolation zone. Over time, muscle will adapt to the stress, which is why we need to combine up our exercises kinds usually to maintain them responsive.
2. Tear down: the stress from train causes rigidity that creates micro-tears within the muscle fibers. A number of the saved glycogen in your muscle tissue is used, and among the proteins that make up your muscle fibers are damaged down as properly. This isn’t unhealthy or dangerous (except you might be coaching in a state of affairs the place your physique is already below stress, not rested, sick, or attempting to restore an damage).
As a result of stress (micro tears) within the muscle created from resistance train, the immune system responds with a collection of reactions that create irritation. The inflammatory response is critical to isolate and restore the harm, and clear the injured space of waste byproducts.
In one other article, I outlined the importance of not further taxing the immune system with exercise when you’re sick or injured, as it could actually compromise your immune response and restrict your capacity to each get higher, and construct muscle.
3. Restore: lastly, your physique makes use of a mobile course of to restore the micro-tears within the muscle fibers, and through this course of, the muscle fibers fuse collectively to extend the thickness of the muscle fibers. Your physique tries to rebuild its glycogen shops, and restore and regrow its muscle protein.
As a result of train creates a specific amount of stress on our system throughout the tear down course of, it’s necessary to sleep properly, eat correctly, and take a break once you’re injured or unwell. Keep in mind, the mobile course of that creates stronger muscle fibers occurs when your physique is at relaxation. So to rock a match physique, your rest days are simply as necessary as your exercises.
VI. How your muscle makes use of the meals you eat for vitality and development
The meals we eat within the type of carbohydrates, fats and protein are all potential gas sources for the physique’s vitality wants. They observe totally different metabolic pathways that present us with quick vitality or saved vitality for later use, and our muscle cells entry them in several methods.
Carbohydrates are damaged down into glucose, which can be utilized for quick vitality, or despatched to the liver and muscle groups and saved as glycogen. Your physique has a restrict to how a lot glycogen it could actually retailer in each locations.
The liver has a set capability, and muscle tissue can retailer a set quantity that depends upon the quantity of muscle you’ve. If you happen to soak up greater than you should utilize for vitality and greater than you’ll be able to retailer in your muscle groups and liver, will probably be saved as physique fats.
Throughout train, there are a number of methods your muscle groups get entry to gas:
- Saved muscle glycogen is transformed again into glucose fueling muscle contraction.
- The liver converts its saved glycogen again into glucose, stabilizing the blood sugar, and in addition making itself out there for the muscle tissue to make use of for vitality.
- Saved physique fats (in our adipose tissue) is damaged down into fatty acids which might be transported by the blood to gas the muscle groups – however this can be a slower course of in comparison with the best way the physique makes use of carbohydrates (glycogen) for gas.
Fats helps gas your muscle groups for low to reasonable depth exercise (within the presence of oxygen availability), so the each day vitality you expend doing all your common actions, and any train carried out at or beneath 65% of your cardio capability (6). Carbohydrates gas increased depth exercise, when your physique can’t course of sufficient oxygen to fulfill its wants (see 2 in part IV).
Not like fats and carbohydrates our physique doesn’t have a “storage reserve” for protein. This is likely one of the causes it’s a good suggestion to incorporate it in your entire meals all through the day. Protein is primarily used to construct, restore and keep physique tissue (in a course of referred to as protein synthesis) and make enzymes and hormones. It serves solely a tiny share of the physique’s vitality wants.
The protein you eat is vital in supporting muscle tissue restore and growth in a course of referred to as muscle protein synthesis (MPS).
Protein is the principle constructing block of muscle tissue. Once you eat meals that comprise protein, they’re digested into their amino acids that are transported to physique tissues and constructed into tissue proteins. Protein synthesis is the method of constructing new proteins, which occurs in all of the physique’s organs.
Muscle protein synthesis (MPS) is the method the place your physique builds particular muscle proteins from amino acids, and this contributes to muscle dimension.
Muscle protein synthesis may be elevated by together with protein with every important meal, and by together with protein after you train – after the “tear down” has occurred. The amino acids from the protein you ingest might be shuttled to your muscle groups, changing any misplaced throughout train (7).
The contractions your muscle groups make lower muscle protein synthesis throughout a exercise, nevertheless it rebounds post-exercise particularly when protein or amino acids are added. Research present that between 20-40 grams is the most effective quantity to assist this course of, and that consuming protein all through the day in your meals can also be a contributing issue (8, 9).
The power for dietary protein to impression muscle protein synthesis decreases with age. On my podcast, Dr. Gabrielle Lyon discussed that this response in older adults necessitates a necessity for elevated quantities of dietary protein. This can be important if you’re over 40 and never being aware of your protein consumption. I like to recommend together with between 20-30grams with every important meal, and supplementing with a protein shake pre or post-workout on coaching days.
Like we had been speaking about above, your physique can retailer the glucose you don’t want for quick vitality in 3 locations, your liver glycogen, your muscle glycogen, and/or your fats cells.
“Nutrient partitioning” describes which of those 3 paths might be taken, and that has loads to do together with your present quantity of physique fats, muscle mass, and hormone ranges – notably insulin.
If you’re insulin resistant, fats storage is prioritized. You probably have good insulin sensitivity, muscle and liver storage is prioritized, and also you get the bonus advantage of it aiding your amino acids coming into the muscle tissue as properly (muscle protein synthesis)(10).
Insulin resistance: Insulin’s job is to assist deliver your blood sugar ranges again to equilibrium by opening up the cells to obtain glucose. People who find themselves insulin resistant produce insulin, however their cells have stopped responding to it.
The pancreas, which makes insulin, turns up the quantity, producing an increasing number of insulin in response to the elevated blood sugar, however the cells nonetheless don’t take it up and blood sugar continues to rise.
Extended elevated blood sugar can harm organs and nerves, and is related to weight problems, kind 2 diabetes, excessive ldl cholesterol and hypertension (11).
Insulin Sensitivity: Insulin sensitivity refers to how responsive your cells are to insulin – so how a lot insulin must be produced to be able to shuttle the quantity of glucose within the bloodstream.
You’re insulin delicate if a small quantity of insulin is required to deposit the glucose you’ve taken in.
Enhancing insulin sensitivity can assist you scale back insulin resistance, and scale back the chance of many illnesses, and ensures your physique converts the vitality out of your meals in probably the most environment friendly method (together with supporting your muscle) (12).
The extra insulin delicate you might be, the extra readily your vitamins might be partitioned to the muscle tissue to be saved as glycogen (quite than fats storage). Insulin can also be thought to have some affect on muscle protein synthesis. It’s theorized that it enhances the uptake of amino acids into the cell, although I discovered inconsistent conclusions in my analysis. Backside line: enhancing insulin sensitivity is a fascinating purpose for higher well being general.
Enhance your insulin sensitivity by consuming entire meals, and getting common train.
Always consuming excessive sugar meals (or consuming in extra of what your physique can course of) triggers the insulin response time and again, resulting in insulin resistance. Doing the other of that, consuming low-glycemic (low sugar) meals – within the type of fiber wealthy entire meals carbohydrates is a good way to enhance your insulin sensitivity.
A slower, steadier inflow of glucose (quite than an enormous spike) provides insulin an opportunity to do its job on the proper tempo. Together with fiber helps us really feel extra full – that means we gained’t be as more likely to overeat. Dietary fats has an analogous impact, slowing down nutrient absorption and making us really feel extra full and glad so we’re not as more likely to overeat. Plus, fats may be very nutrient dense, giving us loads of vitality in a smaller package deal.
Cooking your personal meals so you already know precisely what’s going into your physique is a perfect approach to assist your muscle tissue. It’s far simpler to overeat once you’re consuming pre made meals from refined flour and sugar like breads, cereals, sweets and desserts – they don’t comprise as a lot fiber as their authentic components did, and fixed reliance on them will simply carry on spiking your insulin, resulting in extra physique fats storage and insulin resistance.
Here are just a few of the healthy, whole food recipes found in the Body Fuel System, my signature eating plan.
Insulin additionally has the additional benefit of reducing muscle protein breakdown (MPB). Within the absence of insulin, or within the case of insulin resistance muscle catabolism (breakdown) happens.
Your mind wants a continuing, regular provide of glucose to operate optimally, and MPB permits the physique to achieve entry to amino acids that may be transformed into glucose when there aren’t sufficient out there out of your different shops. Muscle protein breakdown may happen after we don’t eat sufficient meals (or too few carbohydrates) and glycogen reserves are depleted. The physique wants gas, so skeletal muscle is damaged down and transformed to glucose.
Fats, protein and carbohydrates all present the vitamins your physique wants on your exercises, and consuming them all through the day from entire meals sources will give you loads of gas for each each day actions and muscle development. Collectively these vitamins assist wholesome muscle tissue earlier than, and after a exercise.
VII. Hormones and components that play a key position in muscle development
Hormones additionally play a key position in muscle development, notably development issue, testosterone, insulin and cortisol. The mobile response that causes hypertrophy is a multidimensional course of, involving the interplay of particular person muscle fibers with satellite tv for pc cells, the immune system, development components and hormones (13).
Development Elements: in relation to hypertrophy, these are extremely particular proteins that embody hormones and cytokines (cell-signaling proteins) that work collectively (14,15,16). They embody:
- IGF (insulin-like development issue) – produced within the liver; regulates insulin and stimulates muscle protein synthesis (MPS)
- FGF (fibroblast development issue) – which is launched in proportion to the diploma of muscle trauma, and promotes proliferation of the satellite tv for pc cells, resulting in hypertrophy
- HGF (hepatocyte development issue) – which prompts satellite tv for pc cells and could also be chargeable for them migrating to the affected space.
Hormone Response: hormones are chemical messengers, secreted by our glands to manage the exercise of organs and teams of cells. Your hormone operate is immediately affected by your vitamin consumption, stress ranges, sleep high quality and amount, and common state of well being.
The next hormones play a particular position in muscle development (hypertrophy):
Development Hormone (GH) is a hormone that stimulates IGF within the muscle tissue and helps to activate the satellite tv for pc cells. Satellite tv for pc cells operate to facilitate development, upkeep and restore of broken skeletal muscle tissue. They’re referred to as “satellite tv for pc cells” as a result of they’re positioned on the outer floor of the muscle fiber.
Testosterone (which each women and men have, although girls have it in smaller quantities) has an “anabolic” or muscle constructing impact because it will increase muscle protein synthesis, which induces hypertrophy. We are able to’t construct muscle if we’re low on testosterone. Girls produce testosterone in our ovaries (predominantly), adrenal glands and different peripheral tissues.
Whereas girls could have much less testosterone than males, it performs a key position in our vitality ranges and the flexibility to develop muscle mass, power, and bone density (17). That is particularly necessary as a result of each bone density and muscle mass are inclined to lower with age, and intersects with the strategy of menopause when our hormone ranges start to fluctuate and drop down.
Compounding components like lowered progesterone (progesterone is launched with every ovulation) and estrogen fluctuation can impression physique fats shops and vitality ranges, contributing to physique composition adjustments the place we lose muscle and achieve physique fats.
That is removed from a hopeless state of affairs nevertheless, as I detailed in my girls’s hormone well being collection the place I spoke to a wide range of feminine medical doctors who concentrate on supporting girls’s hormone well being. If that is of curiosity, please take heed to:
Guide to Women’s Hormones Part 1
Guide to Women’s Hormones Part 2
Training with your cycle part 1 with Dr. Stacy Sims
Training with your cycle part 2 with Dr. Stacy Sims
What You Need to Know About Birth Control, The Menstrual Cycle and Your Hormones with Dr Jolene Brighten
If you happen to suspect you will have low testosterone (a blood take a look at is one of the best ways to seek out out), look ahead to:
- Overtraining which might lower testosterone ranges. If you happen to’re not exercising a lot, begin.
- Common, constant train typically has been proven to extend ranges of circulating androgens (intercourse hormones) and positively impression your well being (18).
- Resistance coaching helps stimulate muscle protein synthesis and stronger bones, each of which is able to assist mitigate age-related points.
Cortisol is a stress hormone that may provoke muscle protein breakdown – catabolism – which inhibits hypertrophy. Cortisol has necessary jobs that affect your vitality, sleep/wake cycle and fats storage. If you happen to prepare with elevated cortisol it should counter your coaching efforts.
If you happen to’re below common or persistent stress, not getting good sleep, or not working towards self care it could actually actually sabotage your coaching and wholesome consuming. It’s invisible, like all of those hormones are which may be irritating to navigate in the event you’re not conscious of what a big effect they will have.
I like to recommend getting your bloodwork finished by a health care provider who makes a speciality of girls’s hormone well being (ideally an MD with functional medicine training) and I like to recommend creating practices that proactively tackle stress administration like deep respiration, meditation, remedy to deal with previous trauma or unresolved points, and any self-care practices that deliver you right into a peaceable state.
VIII. Muscle by way of our lifespan
In our 20’s and 30’s, it’s simple to take our muscle without any consideration. It’s simpler to construct after we’re youthful attributable to our extra energetic existence mixed with our hormones being of their peak state.
When you get into your 30’s and past, it’s far simpler to begin to lose it, attributable to hormonal adjustments and a lower in exercise stage – however this isn’t inevitable.
Even in the event you’re simply beginning out or rebuilding after having misplaced some floor, you’ll be able to nonetheless construct muscle at any age with common train, wholesome consuming, good relaxation and restoration, an energetic observe of stress discount, and most of the ideas I share on this web site.
As we age sustaining (or including to) our muscular power is crucial, not just for the metabolism-boosting capabilities however to assist stop many age-related struggles like lack of mobility, poor stability, lack of bone density, and decrease vitality.
Sarcopenia, also called “muscle losing” is primarily related to the aged (19). It’s considered attributable to decreased bodily exercise with age, and compounding points like malignancy, rheumatoid arthritis and getting old the place lean physique mass (muscle) is misplaced – so studying as early as doable about the advantages of carrying and sustaining your muscle mass all through your life can profit you in later years.
IX. Coaching on a robust basis and retaining your muscle groups balanced and powerful
When a muscle contracts, it pulls the bones it’s linked to nearer collectively. Many muscle groups are available in “pairs” and act to create and stabilize motion round your joints.
You may see this idea with the biceps and triceps muscle groups that act in reverse methods on the shoulder and elbow joint. Once you flex your arm, your biceps contract (shorten) and your triceps prolong (lengthen). Once you straighten your arm, your triceps contract and your biceps prolong.
Maintaining these two opposing muscle groups evenly balanced helps stabilize the 2 joints they cross, the shoulder and the elbow.
When one aspect of a pair of muscle groups turns into stronger and the opposite aspect weaker, it could actually negatively impact the stability of the joint, and “pull” the bones the muscle attaches to within the path of the stronger muscle.
Exercising on a physique that’s not correctly aligned or with poor kind can create muscle imbalance, result in overuse damage and ache. At all times use modifications whereas constructing your power, and take note of kind cues.
You may take my free Foundations of Functional Fitness Workshop for each day classes that can train you motion patterns and show you how to construct a robust, balanced basis you’ll be able to apply to any exercise that you just do.
Caring on your muscle groups
Stretching improves flexibility, helps stop muscle cramps and accidents, ensures you attain a full vary of movement, promotes higher stability, and ensures you get probably the most out of your exercise. I like including in devoted yoga days to my weekly exercise plans, as a result of this flexibility actually permits me full vary of movement and extra physique consciousness in my different sorts of exercises.
It will also be advisable to get the hands-on care of a bodily therapist or in-person coach who can appropriate your kind, deal with postural imbalances and alignment points so that you just aren’t including resistance or impression to an imbalanced physique. That is particularly necessary if in case you have ache anyplace once you train or have had accidents or accidents up to now.
A number of the therapies I’ve used embody: myofascial launch (MFR – a kind of sentimental tissue remedy), set off level remedy (small irritated nodules within the muscle tissue are launched, bringing stability again to the physique), chiropractic care, and bodily remedy.
I’ve additionally used self-care instruments like a foam roller, a self-massage software referred to as “the stick,” a theragun, and a foot curler – all of which might help in circulation and ease muscular soreness.
Use a well-balanced training program to make sure that you’re strengthening your muscle groups in stability round your joints, and all through your complete physique as properly.
In Rock Your Life, my on-line house exercise studio and most versatile and complete coaching platform, we provide lots of of exercise lessons that may be finished from house with simply your personal body weight, or with resistance tools. Each class consists of reinforcement of excellent kind, and choices for all health ranges.
We offer assist and training in our non-public girls’s health group, and provide dozens of 30-day Challenges, that are complete exercise plans. You can begin a brand new one each month in the event you like, or select from the number of lessons within the house exercise class library.
With choices like HIIT circuits, power coaching, barre, yoga, mobility and extra, there’s one thing to fit your wants any day of the week – with loads of assist and sources to empower your health journey.
Get a 30 day trial to ROCK YOUR LIFE and check out all the opportunities that are just waiting for you inside!
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- Pedersen, Bente Okay. and Febbraio, Mark A. “Muscle as an Endocrine Organ: Give attention to Muscle-Derived Interleukin-6.” American Physiological Society, Physiological Evaluations. October 2008. Internet. https://journals.physiology.org/doi/full/10.1152/physrev.90100.2007
- Legard, Grit E. and Pedersen, Bente Okay. “Chapter 13 – Muscle as an Endocrine Organ.” Tutorial Press, Muscle and Train Physiology. 2019. Internet. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B978012814593700013X
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- Morales, Pablo Esteban et al. “Muscle Lipid Metabolism: Function of Lipid Droplets and Perilipins.” Journal of Diabetes Analysis. June 2017. Internet. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5476901/
- Wackerhage, Henning and Rennie, Michael J. “How vitamin and train keep the human musculoskeletal mass.” Journal of Anatomy. April 2006. Internet. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2100208/
- Stokes, Tanner et al. “Current Views Relating to the Function of Dietary Protein for the Promotion of Muscle Hypertrophy with Resistance Train Coaching.” Vitamins 10, no. 2: 180. January 2018. Internet. https://www.mdpi.com/2072-6643/10/2/180/htm
- Mamerow, Madonna M. et al. “Dietary protein distribution positively influences 24-h muscle protein synthesis in wholesome adults.” Journal of Vitamin. January 2014. Internet. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24477298/
- Souba, W. W. and Pacitti, A. J. “How amino acids get into cells: mechanisms, fashions, menus, and mediators.” Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Vitamin. December 1992. Internet. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/1494216/
- Wang, Xiaonan et al. “Insulin resistance accelerates muscle protein degradation: Activation of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway by defects in muscle cell signaling.” Endocrinology. September 2006. Internet. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16777975/
- Fujita, Satoshi et al. “Impact of insulin on human skeletal muscle protein synthesis is modulated by insulin-induced adjustments in muscle blood movement and amino acid availability.” The American Journal of Physiology – Endocrinology and Metabolism. October 2006. Internet. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2804964/
BONUS: For probably the most in-depth and complete overview of muscle protein synthesis, this text is amazingly thorough and useful: The Ultimate Guide to Muscle Protein Synthesis.
- Hernandez, Richard Joshua and Kravitz, Len. “The Thriller of Skeletal Muscle Hypertrophy.” The College of New Mexico. Internet. https://www.unm.edu/~lkravitz/Article%20folder/hypertrophy.html
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- Hoffmann, Christoph and Weigert, Cora. “Skeletal Muscle as an Endocrine Organ: The Function of Myokines in Train Variations.” Chilly Spring Harbor Views in Drugs. November 2017. Internet. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5666622/
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- Hirschberg, Angelica Lindén et al. “Results of reasonably elevated testosterone focus on bodily efficiency in younger girls: a double blind, randomised, placebo managed examine.” British Journal of Sports activities Drugs. 2020. Internet. https://bjsm.bmj.com/content/54/10/599
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